• نذكر الجميع من أن الغاية في انشاء هذا المنتدى هو الامر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر توعية الاخوان الباحثين عن الركاز بتقديم المساعده لهم من خلال هذا المنتدى بالعلم الحقيقي للأشارات و الرموز المؤدية لأماكن الكنوز المخبأة بعيدآ عن المساكن الأثرية التي كانوا يسكوننها ذالك لمنع ظاهرة التعدي على المباني الاثرية وتخريبها التي لايوجد بها اي كنوز فالكنوز تكون خارج المباني وان كانت موجوده فقد تم استخرجها من قبل الدوله العثمانية التي كانت تهتم باخراج اي كنوز في اي بلد كان تحت حكمها اهدفنا المحافظه على جميع المباني الأثرية لتكون رمز لبلادنا و فخر لنا امام العالم و الحفاظ على الاثار والبحث عن الدفائن و طلب الرزق في الاماكن التي تكون خارج مساكن القدماء
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    Ottoman Navy

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    • Ottoman Navy

      Ottoman Navy


      Pre-Ottoman

      The first Turkish naval fleet in Anatolia, which consisted of 33 sail ships and 17 oar ships, was formed at the port of Smyrna (İzmir) by Chaka Bey in 1081, following his conquest of Smyrna, Vourla (Urla), Kysos (Çeşme), Phocaea (Foça) and Teos (Sığacık) on the Aegean coast of Anatolia in that same year. Chaka Bey's fleet raided Lesbos (Midilli) in 1089 and Chios (Sakız) in 1090, before defeating a Byzantine fleet near the Oinousses Islands (Koyun Adaları) off Chios on 19 May 1090, which marked the first major naval victory of the Sultanate of Rûm in a naval battle. In 1091 Chaka Bey's fleet raided the islands of Samos and Rhodes in the Aegean Sea, but was then defeated and driven out by the Byzantine admirals Constantine Dalassenos and John Doukas. In 1095 Chaka Bey's fleet raided the strategic port city and Gulf of Adramyttium (Edremit) on the Aegean coast of Anatolia and the city of Abydos on the Dardanelles Strait.
      Seljuq sultan of Rûm Alaeddin Keykubad I conquered Alaiye (Alanya) and formed a naval arsenal there. Alanya became the homeport of the Seljuk fleet in the Mediterranean Sea. Keykubad I later formed a fleet in the Black Sea based in Sinope (Sinop), which, under the command of Amir Chupan, conquered parts of the Crimean peninsula and Sugdak on the Sea of Azov (1220–1237).

      تعريف بأسماء مشايخ هيئة كبار العلماء بالسعودية وطرق التواصل معهم

      قَالَ الشَيْخْ الأَلَبْانِيِ رَحِمَهُ الله:
      "طَالِبُ الَحَقِ يَكْفيِهِ دَلِيلْ، وَ صَاحِبُ الَهوَى لا يَكْفِيهِ ألَفَ دَلِيلْ ،الجَاهِلً يُعَلّْمْ وَ صَاحِبُ الهَوَى لَيْسَ لنَا عَلَيهِ سَبِيلْ"
      وقال :التحدث والتخاطب مع الجن بدعة عصرية


    • #2
      Rise (1299–1453)



      Expansion to the Aegean, Black, Ionian and Adriatic Seas


      See also: Rise of the Ottoman Empire and Socioeconomics of Enlargement Era (Ottoman Empire)



      The Battle of Zonchio in 1499.

      The conquest of the island of Kalolimno (İmralı Island) in the Sea of Marmara in 1308 marked the first Ottoman naval victory. The Ottoman fleet made its first landings on Thrace in 1321. The first Ottoman fortress in Europe was built in 1351, and the Anatolian shores of the strategic Bosporus Strait near Constantinople in 1352, and both shores of the equally strategic Dardanelles Strait were conquered by the Ottoman fleet.

      In 1373 the first landings and conquests on the Aegean shores of Macedonia were made, which was followed by the first Ottoman siege of Thessaloniki in 1374. The first Ottoman conquest of Thessaloniki and Macedonia were completed in 1387. Between 1387 and 1423 the Ottoman fleet contributed to the territorial expansions of the Ottoman Empire on the Balkan peninsula and the Black Sea coasts of Anatolia. Following the first conquests of Venetian territories in Morea, the first Ottoman-Venetian War (1423–1430) started.
      In the meantime, the Ottoman fleet continued to contribute to the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the Aegean and Black Seas, with the conquests of Sinop (1424), Izmir (1426) and the reconquest of Thessaloniki from the Venetians (1430). Albania was reconquered by the Ottoman fleet with landings between 1448 and 1479.



      تعريف بأسماء مشايخ هيئة كبار العلماء بالسعودية وطرق التواصل معهم

      قَالَ الشَيْخْ الأَلَبْانِيِ رَحِمَهُ الله:
      "طَالِبُ الَحَقِ يَكْفيِهِ دَلِيلْ، وَ صَاحِبُ الَهوَى لا يَكْفِيهِ ألَفَ دَلِيلْ ،الجَاهِلً يُعَلّْمْ وَ صَاحِبُ الهَوَى لَيْسَ لنَا عَلَيهِ سَبِيلْ"
      وقال :التحدث والتخاطب مع الجن بدعة عصرية

      تعليق


      • #3
        landings between 1448 and 1479.

        Growth (1453–1683)

        See also: Growth of the Ottoman Empire and Socioeconomics of Enlargement Era (Ottoman Empire)


        The Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa defeated the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza in 1538
        .


        In 1453 the Ottoman fleet participated in the historic conquests of Constantinople, Gökçeada, Lemnos and Thasos. The conquest of the Duchy of Athens in Morea was completed between 1458 and 1460, followed by the conquest of the Empire of Trebizond and the Genoese colony of Amasra in 1461, which brought an end to the final vestiges of the Byzantine Empire. In 1462 the Ottoman fleet conquered the Genoese islands of the northern Aegean Sea, including Lesbos. This was followed by the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1463-1479. In the following period the Ottoman fleet gained more territory in the Aegean Sea, and in 1475 set foot on Crimea on the northern shores of the Black Sea. Until 1499 this was followed by further expansion on the Black Sea coasts (such as the conquest of Georgia in 1479) and on the Balkan peninsula (such as the final reconquest of Albania in 1497, and the conquest of Montenegro in 1499). The loss of Venetian forts in Montenegro, near the strategic Castelnuovo, triggered the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1499-1503, during which the Turkish fleet of Kemal Reis defeated the Venetian forces at the Battle of Zonchio (1499) and the Battle of Modon (1500). By 1503 the Ottoman fleet raided the northeastern Adriatic coasts of Italy, and completely captured the Venetian lands on Morea, the Ionian Sea coast and the southeastern Adriatic Sea coast.
        According to Katib Celebi a typical Ottoman fleet in the mid-17th century consisted of 46 vessels (40 galleys and 6 maona's) whose crew was 15,800 men, roughly two-thirds (10,500) were oarsmen, and the remainder (5,300) fighters.[


        تعريف بأسماء مشايخ هيئة كبار العلماء بالسعودية وطرق التواصل معهم

        قَالَ الشَيْخْ الأَلَبْانِيِ رَحِمَهُ الله:
        "طَالِبُ الَحَقِ يَكْفيِهِ دَلِيلْ، وَ صَاحِبُ الَهوَى لا يَكْفِيهِ ألَفَ دَلِيلْ ،الجَاهِلً يُعَلّْمْ وَ صَاحِبُ الهَوَى لَيْسَ لنَا عَلَيهِ سَبِيلْ"
        وقال :التحدث والتخاطب مع الجن بدعة عصرية

        تعليق


        • #4
          Expansion to the Levant and Maghreb, operations in the West Mediterranean


          The Ottoman fleet during the Capture of Tunis at La Goulette in 1574.


          In the Siege of Nice in 1543, the combined forces of the Franco-Ottoman alliance managed to capture the city.



          Ottoman fleet anchored at the French port of Toulon in 1543. Miniature by Matrakçı Nasuh who was travelling with the fleet.


          Starting from the conquest of Syria in 1516, the Ottoman fleet of Selim I started expanding the Ottoman territories towards the Levant and the Mediterranean coasts of North Africa. Between 1516 and 1517 Algeria was conquered from Spain by the forces of Oruç Reis who declared his allegiance to the Ottoman Empire, which was followed by the conquest of Egypt and the end of the Mameluke Empire in 1517. In 1522 the strategic island of Rhodes, then the seat of the Knights of St. John, was conquered by the naval fleet of Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis; Suleiman I let the Knights leave the island, who relocated their base first to Sicily and later to Malta.
          In 1527 the Ottoman fleet participated in the conquest of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia and Bosnia. In 1529 the Ottoman fleet under Salih Reis and Aydın Reis destroyed the Spanish fleet of Rodrigo Portundo near the Isle of Formentera. This was followed by the first conquest of Tunisia from Spain and the reconquest of Morea by the fleet of Hayreddin Barbarossa, whose fleet later conquered the islands belonging to the Duchy of Naxos in 1537. Afterwards, the Ottoman fleet laid siege on the Venetian island of Corfu, and landed on the coasts of Calabria and Puglia, which forced the Republic of Venice and Habsburg Spain of Charles V to ask the Pope to create a Holy League consisting of Spain, the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Genoa, the Papal States and the Knights of Malta. The joint fleet was commanded by Charles V's top admiral, Andrea Doria. The Holy League and the Ottoman fleet under the command of Hayreddin barbarossa met in September 1538 at the Battle of Preveza, which is often considered the greatest Turkish naval victory in history. In 1543 the Ottoman fleet participated with French forces in the Siege of Nice, which at the time was part of the Duchy of Savoy. Afterwards, Francis I of France enabled the Ottoman fleet to overwinter in the French harbor of Toulon. This unique Ottoman occupation of Toulon allowed the Ottomans to attack Hapsburg Spanish and Italian ports (enemies of France); they left Toulon in May 1544. Matrakçı Nasuh, a 16th-century Ottoman Janissary, polymath and swordmaster, reportedly participated in the occupation of Toulon.

          In 1541, 1544, 1552 and 1555 the Spanish-Italian fleet of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria were defeated in Algiers, Naples, Ponza and Piombino, respectively.

          تعريف بأسماء مشايخ هيئة كبار العلماء بالسعودية وطرق التواصل معهم

          قَالَ الشَيْخْ الأَلَبْانِيِ رَحِمَهُ الله:
          "طَالِبُ الَحَقِ يَكْفيِهِ دَلِيلْ، وَ صَاحِبُ الَهوَى لا يَكْفِيهِ ألَفَ دَلِيلْ ،الجَاهِلً يُعَلّْمْ وَ صَاحِبُ الهَوَى لَيْسَ لنَا عَلَيهِ سَبِيلْ"
          وقال :التحدث والتخاطب مع الجن بدعة عصرية

          تعليق


          • #5
            . Operations in the Indian Ocean and the final conquests in North Africa

            Main article: Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean

            Selman Reis defending Jeddah against a Portuguese attack in 1517.



            Ottoman and Acehnese guns, dismantled following the Dutch conquest of Aceh in 1874. Illustrated London News.

            In the meantime, the Ottoman Indian Ocean Fleet, based in Suez and Basra, defeated the Portuguese forces on several occasions near the Arabian peninsula, conquering Aden and Yemen (1538–1539) which were important Portuguese ports, along with Jeddah, Djibouti on the Red Sea coast. The Ottoman Siege of Diu in 1538, which aimed to remove the Portuguese from India, failed to achieve this goal.
            Between 1547 and 1548, Yemen was reconquered from the Portuguese, while in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, other important Portuguese ports such as Oman and Qatar were conquered in 1552.

            In 1565 the Sultanate of Aceh in Sumatra (Indonesia) declared allegiance to the Ottoman Empire, and in 1569 the Ottoman fleet of Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis sailed to new ports such as Debal, Surat, Janjira and finally set foot on Aceh with a well-equipped fleet of 22 ships, which marked the easternmost Ottoman territorial expansion.


            Surviving fragment of the first World Map of Ottoman admiral Piri Reis (1513) showing the Atlantic Ocean and the Americas.

            The Ottoman naval victory at the Battle of Preveza in 1538 and the Battle of Djerba in 1560 ensured the Ottoman supremacy in the Mediterranean Sea for several decades, until the Ottomans suffered their first ever military defeat at the hands of the Europeans at the Battle of Lepanto (1571). But the defeat at Lepanto, despite being much celebrated in Europe, was only a temporary setback: it could not reverse the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus, and within a year, the Ottomans built an equally large fleet, which in 1574 conquered Tunisia from Spain. This completed the Ottoman conquest of North Africa, following the operations of the Ottoman fleet under Turgut Reis which had earlier conquered Libya (1551); and of the fleet under Salih Reis which had conquered the coasts of Morocco beyond the Strait of Gibraltar in 1553.



            تعريف بأسماء مشايخ هيئة كبار العلماء بالسعودية وطرق التواصل معهم

            قَالَ الشَيْخْ الأَلَبْانِيِ رَحِمَهُ الله:
            "طَالِبُ الَحَقِ يَكْفيِهِ دَلِيلْ، وَ صَاحِبُ الَهوَى لا يَكْفِيهِ ألَفَ دَلِيلْ ،الجَاهِلً يُعَلّْمْ وَ صَاحِبُ الهَوَى لَيْسَ لنَا عَلَيهِ سَبِيلْ"
            وقال :التحدث والتخاطب مع الجن بدعة عصرية

            تعليق


            • #6
              Operations in the Atlantic Ocean

              Starting from the early 17th century, the Ottoman fleet began to venture into the Atlantic Ocean (earlier, Kemal Reis had sailed to the Canary Islands in 1501, while the fleet of Murat Reis the Elder had captured Lanzarote of the Canary Islands in 1585). In 1617 the Ottoman fleet captured Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean, before raiding Sussex, Plymouth, Devon, Hartland Point, Cornwall and the other counties of western England in August 1625. In 1627 Ottoman naval ships, accompanied by Barbary corsairs under the leadership of Murat Reis the Younger, captured the Isle of Lundy in the Bristol Channel, which served as the main base for Ottoman naval and privateering operations in the North Atlantic for the next five years. They raided the Shetland Islands, Faroe Islands, Denmark-Norway, Iceland and Vestmannaeyjar. Between 1627 and 1631 the same Ottoman force also raided the coasts of Ireland and Sweden. Ottoman ships later appeared off the eastern coasts of North America, particularly being sighted at the English colonies like Newfoundland and Virginia

              تعريف بأسماء مشايخ هيئة كبار العلماء بالسعودية وطرق التواصل معهم

              قَالَ الشَيْخْ الأَلَبْانِيِ رَحِمَهُ الله:
              "طَالِبُ الَحَقِ يَكْفيِهِ دَلِيلْ، وَ صَاحِبُ الَهوَى لا يَكْفِيهِ ألَفَ دَلِيلْ ،الجَاهِلً يُعَلّْمْ وَ صَاحِبُ الهَوَى لَيْسَ لنَا عَلَيهِ سَبِيلْ"
              وقال :التحدث والتخاطب مع الجن بدعة عصرية

              تعليق


              • #7

                Black Sea operations


                Zaporozhian Cossacks in chaika boats, destroying Ottoman galleys and capturing Caffa in 1616.



                German map of the final phase of the Siege of Candia during the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1645–1669. It clearly illustrates the city's trace italienne fortifications, and the proximity of the characteristic Ottoman siege trenches.



                Before the Ottomans, the Seljuq sultan of Rûm, Alaeddin Keykubad I, had formed a Black Sea fleet based in Sinop, which, under the command of Amir Chupan, had conquered parts of the Crimean peninsula and Sugdak on the Sea of Azov between 1220 and 1237.
                In the years following their conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman Turks had dominated the Mediterranean with their fleets of galleys. In 1475, the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II employed 380 galleys under the command of Gedik Ahmet Pasha, whose fleet conquered the Greek Principality of Theodoro together with the Genoese-administered Crimean port towns of Cembalo, Soldaia, and Caffa ("Kefe" in Turkic languages.) As a result of these conquests, starting from 1478, the Crimean Khanate became a vassal state and protectorate of the Ottoman Empire, which lasted until 1774.
                The failure of the Siege of Malta in 1565 and the victory of the Holy League navies over the Ottomans at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 indicated that the pendulum was beginning to swing the other way, but the Black Sea was, for a time, regarded as a "Turkish Lake". For over a hundred years Ottoman naval supremacy in the Black Sea rested on three pillars: the Ottoman Turks controlled the Turkish Straits and the mouth of the Danube; none of the states in the region could muster an effective naval force; and the virtual absence of piracy on the Black Sea. However, after the 1550s, it was the start of frequent naval raids by Zaporozhian Cossacks that marked a major change in control of the Black Sea. The Cossacks' keelless rowing boats, called chaikas, could accommodate up to seventy men and outfitted with cannonades, the boats made formidable sea vessels. They had the advantage over the Ottoman galleys in that being small, and low in the water, they were difficult to spot and highly manoeuvrable. In the early 1600s the Cossacks were able to assemble fleets of up to 300 such boats and send them to every corner of the Black Sea. They began attacking large towns such as Caffa, Varna, Trabzon, and even the suburbs of Constantinople.
                Guillaume Levasseur de Beauplan, a French military engineer, provided a first-hand account of the Cossack operations and their tactics against the Turkish ships and towns on the Black Sea Coast. The high point of the Cossack attacks came in 1637, when a large party of Zaporozhian and Don Cossacks laid siege to the fortress of Azov. After a two-month land and sea battle, the fortress was conquered by the Cossacks.

                Danube Fleet

                The size of the Danube Fleet in the late 17th century was 52 vessels (4 galliots, 28 frigates and 20 flat-bottomed river boats) manned by 4,070 crew.

                Stagnation (1683–1827)

                See also: Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire
                In the rest of the 17th and 18th centuries, however, the operations of the Ottoman fleet were largely limited to the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea. The long lasting Ottoman-Venetian War of 1645–1669 ended with Ottoman victory and the completion of the conquest of Crete, marking the Empire's territorial zenith. In 1708 another long-lasting objective, the conquest of Oran (the final Spanish stronghold in Algeria) was accomplished.
                The 18th century was a period of stalemate for the Ottoman fleet, with numerous victories matched by equally numerous defeats. Important Ottoman naval victories in this period included the reconquest of Moldavia and Azov from the Russians in 1711. The Ottoman–Venetian War of 1714–1718 saw the reconquest of Morea from the Venetians and the elimination of the last Venetian island strongholds in the Aegean.
                However, during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, the Ottoman fleet was destroyed in the Battle of Chesme (1770). The next Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792) again saw numerous naval defeats at the hands of the Russian Black Sea Fleet under Admiral Fyodor Ushakov.
                During the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829), the Greek rebel navy consisting of converted merchant ships originally challenged Ottoman naval supremacy in the Aegean, blockading Ottoman forts in the Morea and contributing to their capture by Greek land forces. Following the intervention of the Ottoman eyalet of Egypt in 1824, the far superior Ottoman-Egyptian fleet under the command of Ibrahim Pasha gained the upper hand and successfully invaded Crete and the Morea until the arrival of the combined British-French-Russian fleets which destroyed most of the Ottoman-Egyptian naval force at the Battle of Navarino in 1827
                .

                تعريف بأسماء مشايخ هيئة كبار العلماء بالسعودية وطرق التواصل معهم

                قَالَ الشَيْخْ الأَلَبْانِيِ رَحِمَهُ الله:
                "طَالِبُ الَحَقِ يَكْفيِهِ دَلِيلْ، وَ صَاحِبُ الَهوَى لا يَكْفِيهِ ألَفَ دَلِيلْ ،الجَاهِلً يُعَلّْمْ وَ صَاحِبُ الهَوَى لَيْسَ لنَا عَلَيهِ سَبِيلْ"
                وقال :التحدث والتخاطب مع الجن بدعة عصرية

                تعليق

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